CHAPTER 8 OPPOSITION TO SLAVERY, 1800–1833 CHAPTER SUMMARY Early anti-slavery efforts originated in an era of political suspicion and great social change in America. Although the new Democratic Party gave lip service to promoting the ordinary man, they limited their actions to the white man. A far greater democratizing influence in American society came from the force of the Second Great Awakening, which promoted equality of all in the eyes of God, as well as asserted an obligation of the converted to help others. The anti-slavery movement grew out of the Second Great Awakening’s followers desire to reform society. Early abolitionists, afraid that free blacks inspired rebellion, formed the American Colonization Society. This group concerned itself with purchasing slaves and sending them to Africa. Although some blacks supported such practices, others felt they had a right to remain in their home country and have the same privileges as whites. Free black men often formed a visible component of anti-slavery efforts, but black women also participated, despite severe gender restrictions. Whites also began to step up abolitionist efforts in the North. Influenced by David Walker’s militant Appeal and the Nat Turner Rebellion, William Lloyd Garrison began publishing the anti-slavery newspaper the Liberator in 1831. Garrison revolutionized abolitionism by suggesting that gradual approaches were immoral and would fail, and that abolitionism should include a commitment to justice for blacks and whites. The South, however, reacted to abolitionism by tightening restrictions on free blacks and blaming them and outsiders for any revolt rather than questioning the system of slavery itself. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Understand the characteristics of Jacksonian America that led to the beginnings of abolitionism. 2. Understand the variations in anti-slavery efforts in the North and the South from 1800- 1833. 3. Understand the origins, tactics, beliefs, and effects of the American Colonization Society. 4. Understand the alternative visions of blacks in American society presented by black women, the Baltimore Alliance, and David Walker. 5. Understand the role and effects of violent black resistance to slavery. TOPICS FOR LECTURES/LONG ESSAYS OR PAPERS/DISCUSSION 1. Discuss the Second Great Awakening and its overall effect on American culture and society. 2. Discuss the limitations of the early abolitionist movement. What was the role of racism in the movement? 3. Why did blacks have alternative interpretations of how to improve their lives? What types of support and opposition did these anti-slavery and abolitionist ideas generate among blacks? 4. How did black women contribute to the early abolitionist movement? What types of restrictions did women (both white and black) face in American society at this point? Why did more people at this point accept the idea of freeing blacks than giving women equal rights and opportunity? LECTURE OUTLINE I. Introduction II. A Country in Turmoil A. Changes in Industry/Transportation B. Political Paranoia 1. Formation of Democratic Party 2. Democratic Party beliefs 3. Emergence of Whigs C. The Second Great Awakening 1. Characteristics 2. Role with black churches D. The Benevolent Empire 1. Origins in Christian ideas 2. Reform Efforts 3. Abolitionism III. Abolitionism Begins in America A. Anti-Slavery in the South B. Anti-Slavery in the North C. Origins in the North 1. Quakers 2. Events 3. Societies 4. Limitations D. From Gabriel to Denmark Vesey 1. Effects of Gabriel’s Conspiracy 2. Whites’ Vision of Free Blacks 3. Vesey’s Conspiracy 4. Results E. The American Colonization Society 1. Founding 2. Beliefs/Supporters F. Black Nationalism and Colonization 1. Paul Cuffe/Reasons 2. Locations G. Black Opposition to Colonization 1. James Forten/Samuel Cornish 2. Reasons for Opposition IV. Black Abolitionist Women A. Gender Restrictions B. Charlotte Forten C. Maria W. Stewart D. Practical Abolitionists V. The Baltimore Alliance A. Lundy’s Influence B. William Lloyd Garrison VI. David Walker’s Appeal A. Contents B. Effect VII. Nat Turner A. Revolt B. Effects